- The official name: Montenegro
- Political status:Republic
- Location: Adriatic Coast, South-East Europe
- Neighbouring countries: Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia,Albania, Italy
- Size: 13,812 km²
- Length of borders: 614 km
- Population: 620.145 (according to the 2003 census) Montenegrin- 43,16 %, Serb- 31,99 %, Bosniak- 7,77 %, Albanian- 5,03 %, Muslim- 3,97 %, Croatian- 1,10 % ,Other- 6,98 %
- Capital: Podgorica (approx. 170.000 inhabitants; administrative and economic centre)
- Historical capital: Cetinje (18.500 inhabitants, historical and cultural centre)
- Other major cities: Niksic (75.000), Bijelo Polje (50.000), Bar (40.000), Berane (35.000), Pljevlja (35.000), Herceg Novi (33.000)
- Religion: Most of the population is Christian Orthodox, with a significant Muslim minority and a notable Roman Catholic presence in some parts of the country.
- Language: Montenegrin is the official language. Both the Cyrillic and Latin alphabet are in use. Albanian is spoken in some communitiesthat have amajority Albanian population.
- Foreign languages: English, German, Russian, Frenchand Italian are the most common foreign languages spokenat the tourist resorts.
- Length of the coast: 293 km
- Length of beaches: 73 km
- The highest peak: Bobotov kuk (2.523 m)- Mt Durmitor
- The largest lake: Lake Skadar- 391 km²
- The deepest canyon: The Tara Canyon- 1.300 m
- The largest bay: Boka Kotorska
- National parks: Durmitor (39.000 ha),LakeSkadar (40.000 ha), Lovcen (6.400 ha), Biogradska Gora (5.400 ha)
- UNESCO heritage sites:Durmitor National Park, Natural and Cultural - Historical Region of Kotor
- Currency: Euro (€)
- Time: Central European Time GMT+1
- International telephone code: + 382
- Internet country domain: .me
- Electricity: 220 volts AC. Sockets are round two-pin.
- National Tourism Organisation www.montenegro.travel
Montenegro is located in the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula. To the west, north and east it shares borders with Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia and Kosovo, and to the south with Albania. Montenegro is a maritime country, with 200 km of the Adriatic coastline. One of the most beautiful bays in the Mediterranean is the Bay of Boka.
Montenegro's territory measures 13,812 square km and its population numbers about 620 000.
Most of the country is covered by high and extensive mountain massifs intersected by river gorges and deep valleys. Larger lowland areas are to be found in the south, near the coastline.
The Montenegrin seacoast is a narrow strip of land running from Herceg-Novi to the Bojana river on the frontier with Albania. It is famed for its sandy beaches and abundant sub-tropical vegetation.
The high Dinaric mountains of Orjen, Lovcen and Rumija rise steeply from the sea, forming a magnificent background to the coastal strip, but a great obstacle to communications between the coastal and inland parts of Montenegro.
The Zeta plain in the area of Lake Skadar, together with the valley of the Zeta and the Niksic Polje, comprise the biggest lowland region of Montenegro and its most fertile area.
North of this stretch the high limestone mountains of Durmitor, Komovi and Sinjajevina. The Moraca, Tara, Piva and Ceotina rivers and their tributaries have cut deep gorges through these mountains.
The rivers of Montenegro are swift with large drops in elevation and large volumes of water resulting from the high precipitation. They are exceptionally clear and unpolluted, suitable for rafting, fishing and other water sports. Some have carved themselves spectacular canyons; those of the Tara, Piva and Moraca are up to 1200 m deep --- among the deepest in the world.
Lake Skadar, the largest lake in the Balkans, is over 40 km long and on average 10 km wide. Two-thirds belongs to Montenegro and one-third to Albania.
The history of Montenegro dates back to 9th century with the emergence of Duklja, a vassal state of the Byzantine Empire. In those formative years, Duklja was ruled by the House of Vojislavljević. In 1042, at the end of his 25-year rule, King Vojislav won a decisive battle near Bar against Byzantium, and Duklja became independent. Duklja's power and prosperity reached their zenith under King Vojislav's son, King Mihailo (1046–81), and his son King Bodin (1081–1101). From the 11th century, it started to be referred to as Zeta. It ended with its incorporation into Raška, and beginning with the Crnojevic dynasty, Zeta was more often referred to as Crna Gora or by the Venetian term monte negro. A sovereign principality since the Late Middle Ages, Montenegro saw its independence from the Ottoman Empire formally recognized in 1878. From 1918, it was a part of various incarnations of Yugoslavia. On the basis of a referendum held on 21 May 2006, Montenegro declared independence on 3 June of that year.
The Constitution of Montenegro describes the state as a "civic, democratic, ecological state of social justice, based on the reign of Law." Montenegro is an independent and sovereign republic that proclaimed its new constitution on 22 October 2007.
The President of Montenegro is the head of state, elected for a period of five years through direct elections. The President represents the republic abroad, promulgates laws by ordinance, calls elections for the Parliament, proposes candidates for Prime Minister, president and justices of the Constitutional Court to the Parliament. The official residence of the President is in the former Montenegrin capital Cetinje.
The Government of Montenegro is the executive branch of government authority of Montenegro. The government is headed by the Prime Minister, and consists of the deputy prime ministers as well as ministers.
Government of Montenegro www.gov.me
Freedom of religion and free public profession of religious conviction is guaranteed by the Constitution and respected in practice. According to the 2003 census there were 620 145 citizens living in Montenegro, out of which 74,24% declared Orthodox, 17,74% Muslims, 3,54% Roman Catholics, while 2,24% stated that they do not belong to any confession.
Statistical Office of Montenegro www.monstat.org
Montenegro is connected to the world through road, railway, maritime and air transportation.
- By plane…
Choose one of the following airports:
- Podgorica - Golubovci Airport is situated 12 km from the capital Podgorica, 62 km far from from Budva, 43 km from Bar, 69 km from Ulcinj, 80 km from Kolasin and 170 km from Zabljak.
- Tivat – Tivat airport is only 4 km from the town centre, 20 km far from Budva and Herceg Novi, 58 km from Bar, 73 km from Ulcinj and 80 km from Podgorica.
- Dubrovnik – Cilipi Airport - one of the biggest airports in Croatia is situated in-between the Montenegrin town of Herceg Novi and the city of Dubrovnik. What many tourists do not know is that when flying into Dubrovnik Airport you are only 24 km far from Herceg Novi, 44 km from Tivat and 68 km from Budva.
Train travel is convenient and inexpensive. If you prefer travelling by railway, it is useful to know that the main railway line is Bar-Podgorica-Belgrade with connections from Belgrade to the rest of Europe. The existing railways are 249 km long - the main railway line is Bar-Podgorica-Belgrade with branches towards Niksic and the other one towards Skadar (Albania). There are several passenger trains on the Bar-Belgrade-Subotica route: express trains, business, car-trains and sleeping cars trains. Passenger trains on the Bar-Belgrade line connect with international trains to Budapest, Vienna, Bucharest, Athens, Moscow, etc.
Local timetable information - www.zicg.me
International timetable information - www.deutschebahn.com/site/bahn/en
The Railway of Montenegro arranges timetable for every year separately.
It is also possible to reach Montenegro from neighbouring countries by bus. A very comprehensive coach network connects all parts of the country. Bus service through Montenegro is quite frequent, as well as regional services. There are bus stops in all towns and cities of Montenegro. During the tourist season, many work 24 hours a day. There are also regular daily bus lines to bigger cities in neighbouring countries. Timetables are arranged for every year separately.
The coast of the Adriatic Sea makes Montenegro accessible for arrivals by boats, yachts, ferries, cruisers...There are a few companies that maintain a regular ferry connection between Montenegro and Italy. Ships operate on lines between Bar-Bari, Bar-Ancona and Kotor-Bari. During the summer months the frequency of lines is increased. The Port of Bar is the biggest port in Montenegro. The capacity depends on the type and length of boats, 14 to 20 boats can be served at one time. Kotor Harbour consists of Kotor Bay with the operative coast of 216 m in length and 3 to 12.8 m in depth, Lipici Terminal with a 75 metre-long operative coast and the small harbour of Bigovo, which is located on the open sea.
The best way to get acquinted with a country is if you visit it by car. You can reach Montenegro via one of the border crossings with Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Albania. The road network totals 5,174 km. The two major roads in Montenegro are the Adriatic Motorway from Croatia to Herceg Novi and then to Ulcinj, and the motorway that links the South and the North, from Petrovac, through Podgorica and Kolasin to Bijelo Polje and Serbia.
With Croatia: Debeli brijeg, Kobila.
With Bosnia and Herzegovina: Sitnica, Vracenovici, Scepan polje, Metaljka, Ilino brdo, Krstac, Nudo, Sula.
With Serbia: Rance, Cemerno, Dobrakovo, Kula, Drazenovac, Vuce.
With Albania: Bozaj, Sukobin, Grncar.
Road Assistance and Information:
AMSCG (Automobile Association of Montenegro)
In Montenegro the Automobile Association of Montenegro provides services 24 hours a day.
For help on roads call 9807
Tel: +382 9807
Climate: Mainly Mediterranean
Average air temperature: In the winter 5˚C, In the summer 27.4˚C
The climate of Montenegro, besides its latitude and altitude is also characterized by the water area of the Adriatic Sea and lake Skadar, then by deep penetration of the sea into the mainland in the Bay of Boka. Also, high mountains Orien, Lovcen and Rumija as well as the mountain massif of the Durmitor, Bjelasica and Prokletije prevent warm wind from entering.
The south of Montenegro enjoys a Mediterranean climate, with log dry summers and short mild winters. At the seaside, an average July maximum temperatures are around 28C with a high approaching 30C, winter maximum temperatures are around -10C and minimums around –27.5C. Podgorica is the warmest city in Montenegro, where maximum temperature can reach up to 40C and the minimum -10C.
In the central and northern part of Montenegro, the climate is continental though influenced by Mediterranean climate manifested with precipitations and a higher temperature in winter months. The climate in the northernmost part of the republic is based on Continental climate with great temperature differences during the year and smaller volume of precipitations.
The High karsts mountain area is sub-alpine with cold snowy winters and moderate summers. Average precipitations vary from 960 to 2.900 l/m2, while the region of Krivosije (Crkvica) has a European maximum of precipitations, in average about 4.800l/m2 and in the record years 7.000l/m2. Average annual sunny days number is 142, while the air humidity is from 50% in Podgorica, during summer, up to 80% in Kolasin and Niksic during autumn months.
Hydrological and meteorological service of Montenegro www.meteo.co.me
- Information: 1181
- Ambulance: 124
- Police: 122
- Time: 125
- Weather report: 044800200
- Help on roads: 19807
- Waking up: 1181
- Sending telegrams by phone: 126
- International calls: 1201
- Montenegro Customer Care – 1300 (24h – Tourist service)
- Internet : 1500
- Number for Dial-up connects: 19402
- Mobile telephony:
- 1 January: New Year's Day
- 7 January: Orthodox Christmas
- Orthodox Good Friday
- Orthodox Easter
- Orthodox Easter Monday
- 1 May: Labour Day
- 21 May: Independence Day
- 13 July: Statehood Day
Courses of Montenegrin language for foreigners are mainly organized according to the needs and number of interested candidates. Lectures are organized in form of group or individual work.
Institutions that organize Montenegrin courses for foreigners are:
- University of Montenegro, Institute for Foreign Languages http://www.isj.ac.me/english.htm
- University Donja Gorica, Center for Foreign Languages http://www.udgedu.me/cfl/kursevi.php?tag=5 (English version under construction)
- University Mediterranean, Faculty of Foreign Languages http://fsj.unimediteran.net/# (English version under construction)